The Science of Reconstruction

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Out of CSIght, Out of Mind

Star Trek: Picard murder mystery
Star Trek: Picard is a series that talks about the general Jean-Luc Picard’s adventures after his prime, with a crew and a starship. The plot of the 1st season revolves around a murder of Dahj, a droid seeking help from Picard. After Dahj is attacked and killed by an unknown assailant, Picard becomes determined to investigate and find out who is responsible. As Picard and his allies delve deeper into the investigation, they discover that the evidence has been manipulated or completely replaced to cover up the identity of the killer. This includes falsified surveillance footage and a planted message that makes it appear as though Dahj was involved in a terrorist plot. The culprit is eventually revealed to be Narek, a member of the Romulan Zhat Vash, who had been posing as a love interest for Soji, Dahj's twin sister. Narek had been tasked with manipulating Soji into leading the Zhat Vash to the location of a powerful synthetic android, but he developed genuine feelings for her and was conflicted about carrying out his mission. In an effort to protect Soji and prevent her from learning the truth, Narek kills Dahj and replaces the evidence to cover his tracks. However, his actions ultimately lead to his downfall, as Picard and his allies eventually uncover the truth and bring him to justice. The main connection to the curriculum is that Picard used an alien device to see how the murder location looked at the time Dahj was killed, as the assassin replaced all of the materials of the murder location.

Angela Gallop thinking outside the box to solve crimes as a forensic scientist
Angela Gallop is a forensic scientist in Britain, who has held a great career since 1980’s - and just like every forensic scientist, she collects evidence at the crime scene and performs scientific analysis in her laboratory. However, unlike other forensic scientists, Gallop often uses a different approach to solve crimes – she recreates them in some sort. For example, in June 1982 a man named Roberto Calvi was told to be hung by himself from scaffolding beneath Blackfriars Bridge in London, although the fact that he was a banker that might had connections with the Italian mafia, and it was just a week before a trial, this case seemed really sus. His family didn’t think he committed suicide, so Angela Gallop was hired to do that. How exactly? She recreated the scene with her husband as the victim, with the same clothes at the same age in the same scaffolding, and saw that in the victim’s condition he couldn’t have walked there and hung himself. She proved it to the court and Calvi did not commit suicide, although they still don’t know who the killer is. There are at least 7 more cases there. The main point they’ll ask you about is that she recreates the scene and finds flaws, just like reconstructing the past.

CSI Effect
The CSI effect is an effect based on the hit series Crime Scene Investigation, in which the main characters who are forensic scientists find a lot of crime evidence, show them in court and get the defendant not guilty. This affects the jury in a real court to think that scientific evidence is found easily, and that only scientific evidence is useful, and not the psychological stuff, alibis, motives…
The prosecution combats the CSI effect by acknowledging the effect in front of the jury. It screws up both the defense and the prosecution, depending on the case and its scientific evidence. As there are two types of evidence: evidence from people and physical evidence, the physical evidence is what the jury tends to care about more. Forensic Evidence was first documented in the 7th century when China used fingerprints to identify some documents and sculptures. The CSI effect also screws up the labs, because the jury always wants more scientific evidence, which causes the labs  to work for extra hours.

How police breaks an alibi
Policemen need to determine if an alibi is real or fake, but how do they do it? If someone tells the truth, he will only tell you the story and not any additional details, and when you’ll ask him about additional stuff he’ll get angry, as in reality he really told you the whole story at the beginning. If someone brings a fake alibi, he will always change his story when you present additional information, and then you gotta wait until you find a contradiction in their story. Evidence that you present may be evidence from the crime scene or evidence from the alibi’s location.

Alternative Light Source (ALS)
A way of identification of physical evidence. It works as when you pull up a device that provides light at specific wavelengths that our eye can’t normally see, and by using goggles that defend us from the dangerous light, we can find a lot of physical evidence that we couldn’t see without ALS, such as biological fluids, latent prints and fibers. As you can see in this short article Forensic Science - Alternate Light Source there is a picture of a shirt with semen inside its pocket, and with the usage of ALS we can simply find the semen inside the shirt.

The study of poisons and their effects on living systems. Forensic toxicology is the analysis of poisons inside someone’s body. If someone went over the speed limits, cops can analyze if he has drugs or alcohol in his body. If there is a murder crime, forensic scientists can find out from what poison was the victim killed.

allistics is the examination of evidence from firearms that may have been used in a crime. Ballistic markings are like the "fingerprints" of a gun. The barrel leaves distinctive marks on each bullet it fires. You can examine these "ballistic fingerprints" to see which gun fired the shot. It's quite accurate.

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA)
The analysis of bloodstains in a crime scene. With measuring the biology of the blood (its behavior), the physics (its cohesion, capillary action and velocity) and math (geometry, distance and angle), bloodstain pattern analysts can answer a lot of unsolved questions about the murder scene. On top of that, they can try to contradict the evidence they found and the story the blood tells, to the alibi of some people. By contradicting the blood’s evidence with the witnesses’ evidence, you can find out if the results are true.

Patent vs Latent print analysis
Patent prints are visible prints from a crime scene, like fingerprints, while Latent prints are invisible prints from a crime scene, like sweat. You gather Patent prints by taking a photo of them, while with Latent prints you use ALS to find and capture them. Then, analysts use the following way of work to examine a patent/ latent print. First they analyze them, finding on them biological/ physical details, then comparing them to the suspects’ prints, then evaluating if these were truly from the crime scene, and lastly verifying them by asking from another forensic scientist to independently do the same process and if they both get to the same conclusion, they are right.

Forensic Entomology
The study of insects associated with crimes, to determine the time and place of death. Most of the time, forensic entomologists analyze flies and beetles that were around the body, to determine where the person really died, and time of death, by examining the insects themselves, as most insects tend to get close to a body only when it is dead. Therefore when someone dies you can find where and when did he die by seeing when and where insects came closer to him.

Forensic Ecology
Analyzing the relationship between the victim and the physical environment, aka the crime scene. They analyze the temperature, ground, water, light, oxygen and minerals in the crime scene, and then link it to the murder and the victim.

Forensic genetics
Forensic genetics is linked with providing data to the DNA found in a crime scene, who has that DNA, and connecting the person with that DNA to the crime scene. Forensic scientists mostly find a matching DNA from the DNA database, but if they don’t find a matching DNA, they match it with a similar DNA and then find from the suspects who looks more alike that guy.

DNA phenotyping
DNA phenotyping is the technique I just talked about to narrow down the number of potential crime scene trace donors, if there is no matching DNA of the murderer’s DNA. What I mean is that they match the killer’s DNA with a guy who has a similar DNA, and then whoever doesn’t look at all like that guy is not a suspect anymore.

Geolocating with stable isotopes
Just like Carbon dating but on murder cases, and with locating instead of dating, and with isotopes instead of carbon. In our environment we have elements, and some of them can also be isotopes. Each area has a different substance of different isotopes in our air, so scientists can also map the origin of the victim by the isotopes inside his body.

Cloud forensics
In cyber crimes, the bad people use the internet, aka the cloud to infiltrate to private people/ company’s electronic devices, and then they can destroy it or request real money for not destroying their electronic devices (when someone is inside the school’s internet, a skilled school technician can access your phone and do everything with it). Let’s say Iran infiltrates one of Israel’s hospitals via the internet and turns off all of the ventilators. Doing this is a crime. Now in a case of murder, Cloud forensics have the skill to find out who accessed the internet and sabotaged it. They use the internet to see who used the internet to use the electronics in the internet for bad purposes. With the cloud, people can also find the electronic device's location, therefore cloud forensics can detect where the cyberbully is.

Forensic sketch of Abraham Lincoln’s assassination
Before today’s advanced technology, people used to sketch the moment of murder, as there weren’t cameras. On the morning of April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth heard that President Lincoln will visit Ford Theatre evening, so he and his co-conspirators planned to attack Lincoln and the Vice President Andrew Johnson oh and also Secretary of State William H. Seward. Because Booth was an actor in the Theatre, he knew the layout, and he entered Lincoln’s booth and shot him once to the head, while also stabbing Major Henry Rathbone, before making his escape. From (a lot of) witnesses, and scientific evidence, artists at the time created a pretty accurate forensic sketch of Lincoln’s death, and it seems that every man there is in his “main character” moment, as they have extreme expressions. This can mainly be because of each witness’ dramatic testimony, or maybe because the president died.

Apple Daily making animations of murder cases without camera evidence
Jimmy Lai is a Chinese media elite guy who likes shaking things up and likes a lot of drama. He took the China-Taiwan-Hongkong publishing market by a storm with the introduction of Apple Daily, a newspaper that combines politics and business, but is being reported with colorful tabloids (a creative form of newspaper, google it!) and extensive graphics. Then bro moved on with founding in 2009 a youtube channel called “Next Media Animations”, a channel that offers more than 1000 videos focusing on some western news and scandals, being put in 3d animation/ cgi. Taiwan’s National Communications Commission rejected Lai’s application for a tv license, because his content blurs the border between reality and dramas. As said, now his animations focus on western scandals, such as a Killer Whale attack with no real footage, Gordon Brown, UK’s PM abusing his staff in an over-volcanic way, Jay Leno and Conan O’brien, talk show hosts, get into a serious battle with each other (in reality it’s not that dramatic), and how Marilyn Monroe, Beyonce and Shakira have an effect on the male brain.
Last but certainly not least, the video that made “Next Media Animation” popular, the Tiger Woods car crash, which is a mix of real pictures from the Woods crash with an animated fight and accident. There is a narration in Taiwanese, but it’s translated to English so that’s cool.

Tiger Woods car crash and Next Media Animation’s “”artwork””
A video of Tiger Woods, a famous American golf player, the richest athlete worth 1 billion $, who was injured in a car crash, Next Media Animation tells the story in a dramatic way – at the beginning they deliver the facts with a pretty accurate animation of what we surely know from the car crash, and also a lot of pictures or videos that are actually real in a mix. Accurately enough, they explain that he just died from a car crash, and Elin Nordegren’s alibi, Wood’s wife who was in home and Woods crashed near their home so she came and tried to help him with no success. Then comes the sussy part, where Next Media Animation literally accuses Elin of killing Woods with no evidence, except for the fact that she once had an affair with someone else. They can accuse her, but also make an animation that falsely shows Elin bumping with a golf club on Woods’ car leading to his crash with no evidence? This is outrageous. That’s why the Taiwan Communication Commission didn’t give Lai a TV license. He paints a maybe-false image that is too real, therefore the watchers think that the animation might be actually real, despite having no evidence.

ChatGenePT: Reconstruction as Resurrection

Jurassic Park
A series of films directed by Stephen Spielberg during the 90’s that combined the genre of science fiction with dinosaurs. First of all, the archeological findings of dinosaurs such as Sue, and the popularization of paleoart lead Spielberg to think about a movie idea surrounding these creatures. The interesting thing about this movie is that it was the first one to introduce de-extinction to the big screen in a science-fiction way. It did it by introducing us into a park where scientists genetically edit extinct dinosaurs’ broken DNA using frog DNA, and so create a full dinosaur DNA, and raise them in the park as a type of zoo. It goes off the rails when the dinosaurs escape or something.

Jurassic World
After the huge success of Jurassic Park, there has been a soft reboot of the trilogy in attempts to milk more money from the franchise. It involved genetically engineering the dinosaurs once again, but instead of adding missing code to the DNA, recreating history accurately, they just edited the code to make the dinosaurs much bigger and stronger, unlike how they’ve been 67 million years ago. That’s why Jurassic Park is considered science fiction, and Jurassic World is more of a fantasy (Like Harry Potter 😉).

Resurrection Biology/ de-extinction
The act of getting extinct species to be not extinct by a few ways listed below. The benefits in de-extinction is that there will be a lot of research benefits, such as looking at how animals from the long past have functioned, and it could also help us fill holes in theories around evolution. It also has a beneficial impact on our environment, because when an animal is extinct, its environment’s food web might become messed up, and by bringing it back quickly the food web won’t mess up. Scientist Sergey Zimov claims that if we bring back the wooly mammoth back to the tundra it may slow the melting of ice caps, slowing global warming.
The non-benefits for de-extinction are that the huge amount of money spent on bringing back an extinct species can just be spent on species that are endangered, and so practicing in de-extinction does have a negative impact on already endangered species. On top of that, a biologist in Carleton University, Joseph Bennet claims that if a billionaire wants to do it from his own money that’s cool, however giving an excuse for someone else like the gov to pay for it is wrong, as explained.
The key element to bring an extinct species is DNA. Because DNA has a half life of 521 years (every 521 years 50% of the present DNA code has been broken ), after 6.8 million years you cannot have access to the species DNA, therefore dinosaurs can’t really come back, as scientist Robert Lanza claims.

Back Breeding
A form of breeding where we breed back into living populations a trait from an extinct species. For example, if we want to bring back a wooly mammoth, we’ll get a lot of elephants to have babies with each other. Let’s say 500 elephants have babies with each other and now we have 50000 elephants, and so now some of these babies have rare traits, and lets say 7 of them have a little hair. We get these seven and have them have babies with each other a lot untill that gene of brown wool on skin becomes more dominant, and we do that a couple more times until we get something similar to the wooly mammoth. This technique doesn’t really bring back the extinct species…. I mean, it doesn’t bring back the wooly mammoth, but just an elephant with brown wool. Zoos love it, but scientists not so much as these guys just want to examine the species’ authentic DNA, which is not present by using this method, as you create a kind of hybrid.

Interspecies Cloning/ Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
The only method where humans can bring back 100% of the extinct species, and not some hybrid ripoff. With this method, we take a complete full genome, therefore it works only on species that were extinct not that much time ago, and so we take that full genome from the cell and put that genome in a living cell nucleus of a living species, and establishing pregnancy in that existing species with the extinct species cell nucleus inside their cells, and so we get to clone the extinct species, like literally an exact one by one clone of the animal its original DNA was taken from. Scientists love this method, although it works only on species that were extinct not so long ago, as we need a pretty complete genome for this. For example, we’ll take the DNA of the recently extinct Pyrenean Ibex, and replace the cell nucleus of a normal goat with the DNA we took, and so that random goat now has in its cells a Pyrenean Ibex DNA. We’ll make this goat pregnant and the baby will be an exact copy of the Pyrenean Ibex. As I said, to disadvantages, that are that the animal needs to be recently extinct, and also there has to be a lot of different DNA samples of the species, as the species will struggle with genetic problems (having sex with your clone seems so cool, but is no good idea). The only successful attempt of cloning is of a normal sheep, Dolly, but it’s not in the context of de-extinction, as sheep weren’t extinct.

Genetic Engineering/ Genome editing
A de-extinction method where scientists manipulate the genomes of a living species that look similar to the extinct species to make a new species that looks like the extinct one, or retrieving a broken DNA sample and filling the blank code with the code of the similar living species. Nevertheless, in both ways modifying the DNA is used by tools such as CRISPR, that can be used to insert the corresponding genetic material into the genome of a closely related living species, and by that they can potentially re-create a hybrid that looks similar to what the extinct species looked like. Problem, again, is that with our tech it still doesn’t resemble all of the extinct species’ traits, and so they are still considered hybrids. Hopefully though as CRISPR advances, these species will be 100% accurate.

Technology carries de-extinction
De-extinction started in the 90’s, and then it took a lot of money and time in order to extract an extinct species’ DNA. Nowadays, it is much cheaper and takes much less time with our technology, specifically AI and Multidimensional databases. AI carries de-extinction as it has the ability to learn the pattern of the long genetic code of an extinct species, and with that to fill the broken DNA code in much less time, and also can create embryos of these extinct species. Multidimensional databases carries de-extinction as now instead of storing billions of genetic codes in databases in the size of a house, now you can store a lot in a simple multidimensional database chip, making it very cheap. When in the 90’s it took 1 billion dollars and 13 years to extract DNA, now it takes around 20 minutes and less than 600$ to do that. The manager of the Catalyse Science Fund, Bridget Baumgartner and Micron Senior Business Development Manager Eric Booth both support the usage of AI and Multidimensional databases in order to cause de-extinction.

Criterias to determine whether a species can be practically de-extinct
Ornithologist Susan Haig gives us a few criterias to whether a species is viable for biological resurrection.
First, the sooner it's extinct the better, as the DNA doesn’t break that much. That’s why it will be much easier to bring back the dodo who was extinct 500 years ago than the dinosaurs who were extinct 67 million years ago.
Secondly, the species should also be nonmigratory, as it will be easier to find its DNA in just one area instead of all the areas it migrated to.
Thirdly, if it mates monogamously, aka having sex with only one partner is better, as it will help scientists control the breeding, making the population grow more quickly, making the breed more genetically closer to the original.
Fourthly, if the edited infants are similarly sized to the normal ones, a mommy elephant might not be able to carry a baby mammoth.  
Fifthly, if the newborns are self-sufficient, as if they depend on their host animal, they will behave just like it and not in the way it behaved before it was extinct, ruining the whole point of de-extinction.

K-T boundary
A geological boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Paleogene period, which occurred 66 million years ago. The change between these periods is that in the Cretaceous period there were dinosaurs, and in the Paleogene they were not to be seen anymore. That’s because between these two periods the meteor struck earth. It is now a layer of iridium on earth, and it helps archeologists understand in what period were fossils lived, by looking where it is in contrast to the K-T boundary. Also the main source of evidence people believe a meteor really struck the dinosaurs.

Revive & Restore
A foundation that wants to enhance biodiversity through the genetic rescue of endangered and extinct species. They tend to fund the following examples of resurrection biology, and were co-founded by Stewart Brand and Ryan Phelan.

Black-footed ferrets
A species of ferrets in North America who are endangered. The manager of the Catalyst Science Fund, Bridget Baumgartner, decided to fund research projects for Revive & Restore, a nonprofit genetic rescue organization leading the de-extinction charge. These species are endangered because they don’t do too much sex with each other, yet they are important for the North American biodiversity, and so before they’ll go extinct that nonprofit organization tries to extract as much DNA as possible. San Diego’s Frozen Zoo has genetic material of more than 1000 species, and researchers hope to clone two different ferret breeds with the remaining black-footed ferrets and so breed them to have more babies.

Tasmanian tiger/ thylacine
A species of tigers that lived during the ice age with saber-like teeth. They evolved in Australia 5 million years ago, and then found themselves stuck in Tasmania, the lonely island south of Australia we all hide in when watching the videos of “Jamal farted. Find a place on earth to hide”. It was extinct in the 20th century in a zoo as a result of habitat loss, human hunting and disease. Andrew Pask, a developmental biologist at the University of Melbourne claims that the Tasmanian Tiger is the best candidate for de-extinction, as his team sequenced its genome only 5% of the DNA was missing, and this 5% is repetitive so you can fix the problem by finding the repetition.

Christmas Island Rat
As a test for de-extinction, Tom Gilbert from the University of Copenhagen and Jian-Qing Lan from Shantou university tried to bring back the Christmas Island rat (Christmas Island is an Australian territory not far south of Indonesia) because it went extinct recently in 1908 and is closely related to the Norway rat, which scientists have studied thoroughly and whose complete genome they have and know how to modify. They extracted DNA and sequenced it many times, using the genome of the Norway rat as a reference to piece together as much as possible, but even after that almost 5% of its genome was still missing, which held a lot of its defining characteristics.

American Chestnut
A species of trees that are native in the NorthEastern side of the USA. During the 20th century there has been a mysterious mushroom, fungus, that spread quickly from New-York to the rest of New England (aka NorthEastern America). This fungus wiped out billions of trees, especially the American Chestnut, driving it into extinction, although for the last two decades Sara Fitzimmons, the director of restoration for the American Chestnut Foundation decided to add to the species’ genes a gene that makes the species immune to the fungus, which is like adding to humans a gene that counters coronavirus in mid pandemic. It is now still critically endangered but now it is at least not disappearing on such a big scale.

Wooly Mammoth
A species of ancient elephants who had smaller ears and brown fur, and were alive and kicking until about 10000 years ago. The last group of wooly mammoths survived until 1650 B.C, and they were extinct as a result of our climate becoming hotter (making them unable to survive in these conditions), and because of mass hunting. Two specimens in the Arctic from about 4,000 and 45,000 years ago were recently found, meaning these may have some DNA (better than nothing). The next step would be to use AI to copy and paste the wooly mammoth DNA to the asian elephant DNA and see if these match, and if they would our mammoth will come back. If not, we can breed an egg cell of an asian elephant and a sperm cell of a wooly mammoth to create a ½ asian elephant ½ wooly mammoth, and then back-breed them to have the wooly mammoth DNA more dominant, making it extremely close to the good ol’ wooly mammoth. Another way is to fill the blank parts of the wooly mammoth DNA with the similar asian elephant DNA with SPNCR technology (simply genome editing), and is led by George Church, a scientist hoping to introduce these wooly mammoth hybrids to Pleistocene Park, a place in Siberia where they can chill and not overheat. Bringing back the wooly mammoths from the two DNA samples will not give us a big variety of mammoths, therefore there will be some genetic problems as they need to have babies with their sisters and moms, and on top of that wooly mammoths go in big groups and our small group will make them depressed. Last but not least bringing back mammoths will have babies with the asian elephants who are already endangered, as explained in the de-extinction part.

Pyrenean Ibex/ bucardo
A species of ibexes which was mostly in Western Europe, in countries such as Portugal, Andorra Spain and France. That area had a lot of goats and sheeps, and because there was a lot of competition in one area, the bucardos didn’t have any food. while humans hunted them and they had sex with their sisters. That’s why in 2000, the last Portuguese Ibex, Cecilia, died because a tree fell on her. Luckily, a few months prior some scientists took her DNA and froze it until 2009 when they cloned her, and out of 500 goats only one of them got pregnant with Cecelia, although there was a problem with the lungs of the newborn Pyrenean Ibex, and so it died after a few seconds. So it was extinct twice, yet it is a big step towards a good de-extinction project. The project was led by Dr. Alberto Fernandez-Arias.

Passenger Pigeon
The passenger Pigeon was THE pigeon of the 19th century, but was extinct at the beginning of the 20th century as a result of commercial exploitation, loss of habitat, and hunting. The last passenger pigeon, Martha, died in a zoo in 1914. A scientist from Revive & Restore, Ben Novak, sequenced the DNA of the species’ cousin, the band-tailed pigeon, and hopefully until 2025 this unique ¾ passenger pigeon ¼ band tailed pigeon breed will be revived.

A type of Emu who lived in New Zealand and could kick as a form of aggression. As a result of colonialist hunting they were extinct in the 15th century. There has been a de-extinction attempt in 2017 by a team of scientists at the University of Adelaide led by Mike Lee, who used genome editing to create a chicken embryo with just some of the Moa’s genetic traits, using CRISPR-Cas9. Because this chicken embryo doesn't have all of the Moa’s traits, this is not considered real de-extinction, but just a weird hybrid.

I’ll just trust what Guy says, although it might be a complete miss. So hear me out, Guy says because Dragons weren’t real creatures, we can’t de-extinct them, as they weren’t extinct in the first place. Where were they actually extinct? In Game of Thrones. So I’ll go for it, hopefully I don’t miss it. So 150 years before the series starts, King Aegon III of Tygerian has his last dragon dead as a result of overhunting, disease and lack of suitable habitat. Then at the beginning of the series the next generation of the Tygerians, Halisi, aka Daenerys Targaryen still keeps the three eggs the last dragon had made, although they haven’t broke in years, making people think they don’t work well, but she was patient and at the end three dragons were born, getting the Dragons back on track. However (spoiler) two die. So Dragons are not okay after all.

Dodo/ Raphus Cucullatus
A bird who can’t fly, and was chilling on the lonely island of Mauritius. Because the dodos didn’t have a predator on that island, they evolved to be birds who don’t act when they are being hunted. Therefore when the colonizers came they just didn’t run away when being hunted, and they were extinct in 1681. The scientific world says that Ben Novak’s strat to bring back or get out of endangerment the Passenger Pigeon, and also the Black-Footed Ferret can also work on our Dodo. The most similar species to the dodo is the Southeast Asian Nicobar pigeon.

The ancestors of today’s cows, which are bigger and have cool horns. They used to be a key part of the Western European ecosystem, but the ecosystem had a drastic change, making them go extinct. Now when the ecosystem needs them the most, they are still extinct. Well, they were extinct back in the 17th century. Scientists want to bring back these Aurochs to bring back the farmlands, and there have been several attempts to bring them back. The first one was made by Heinz and Lutz Heck, some German zookeeper bros who wanted to have some cows who look like Aurochs in the fields of Germany and in their zoo, so they back-breeded cows to look like the Aurochs in the 1930’s. Funny to note that the Nazi guy Hermann Goring also said they wanted to bring the Aurochs back because they are superb cows for superb Nazis. Nowadays, Ronald Goderie wants to bring them back to the Coa Valley in Portugal to help nature, by back breeding too, but now doing it more precisely, and by relying more on cave paintings and stuff people once said about it, like how Julius Caesar depicted them.

Post-Mortem Facial Reconstruction (PMFR)
A technique that uses anatomical knowledge of a skull to flesh out the face of that individual. This can be put in the context of archeology with having skulls of neanderthals such as the old man of Shanidar or Lucy and getting to see how they looked when they were alive, but also it can be put in a forensic context. How exactly? Forensic artists work with the law enforcement to identify victims of crime when their identity is not known but they do have their skull remained.

Post-Mortem Facial Reconstruction in forensic context
When we want to identify a victim, just with his skull you can use post-mortem facial reconstruction, or as it is called in the forensic field, the Gatliff/Snow American Tissue Depth Method, created and developed by Betty Pat Gatliff and Dr. Clyde Snow. The method assisted in identifying victims of serial killer John Wayne Gacy and reproducing the head of John F. Kennedy, which was used to investigate his assassination.

Archeology: the Telltale Art

The art of reconstructing something without the complete information – just like goofy ahh people have been doing with dinosaurs for over 100 years. Connects perfectly to my last point. Also, a book by Zoe Lescaze – Paleoart: visions of the prehistoric past. There are a lot of artworks there of featherless dinosaurs, no way I'm going to summarize each and every painting, so yeah these are not WSC cannon.

Carefully digging a hole in the earth, trying to discover something specific like a boat (Sutton Hoo reference). There are many types of excavation – brushing, digging and different kinds of approaches, but in all of them you dig a hole in the ground.

Remote sensing
The process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance. Getting info about something without making physical contact with the object. Satellites are the main usage of remote sensing nowadays. Bonus is radar. Sonar (The stuff bats use) is remote sensing too. In archeology, remote sensing is mostly used by sending radio waves to the ground, and then recording in nanosecond (like ana's "Nano boost" from overwatch) how much time it took for the radio to come back, and that's how they discover stuff without touching it. Heck – even creating a 3d map of it without seeing it. Just like sonar but with tech. GPR equipment is a valid name too. I predicted one of the articles with my sonar claim (SONAR – Sound Navigation And Ranging).


The study of animal remains from archeological contexts. Fossils or remains of extinct animals. You can learn how long it takes for human hunting to cause extinction, what are the triggers that cause over-hunting, and how to prevent it in the future, so you learn for the past how animals were extinct and try to not make the same mistake again.


The study of ancient plant remains. Remains of extinct plants. Learning the details of how plants were extinct and how to prevent these. Similar to zooarcheology but on plants.

Carbon Dating
I'm not the best chemist in the world, but I think Ik this stuff. It is a method of determining the age of a plant/ animal, using the carbon it used a lot of time ago. So it works like this – in earth's atmosphere, interaction between nitrogen and a cosmic ray causes a RadioCarbon, aka C14, a carbon isotope, and with oxygen it becomes a radioactive form of carbon dioxide. A plant gets this radioactive carbon dioxide by photosynthesis, and an animal eats that plant, meaning that both of them probably have radioactive carbon dioxide in them right now. That RadioCarbon undergoes a radioactive decay, in other words, the body's atoms slowly, but extremely slowly decay, and take the body's energy, therefore in 1940's when Willard Libby of the University of Chicago found out about this method, he got a Nobel prize in Chemistry 20 years later. So from determining how much energy a dead life form lost by radiocarbon, you can find out when it lived.

Oh hell nah this is very weird. A dating technique for trees, based on the analysis of their rings. You measure the rings of the tree's log to date it. It is because many species of trees produce growth rings during annual growth seasons. The width of the ring for each year is determined by internal and external factors, but it tends to vary mainly in proportion to either the amount of available precipitation or the prevailing temperatures.

Interpreting past archeological facts from outside the archaeological science community, like saying that the pyramids must have had support of extraterrestrial forces because the stones are too large to move with modern technology. There is always lack of scientific method in these interpretation, and they oppose to what the archaeological science community thinks, and it happens among nationalist and religious movements

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